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內蒙古DB15/T 3157—2023《小麥免耕播種機械作業技術規范》解讀

2023-09-15 14:17:04 來源:農機網整理發布 閱讀量:28755 評論

導讀:該標準規定了小麥免耕播種機械作業的術語和定義、適播條件、播前準備、作業要求、注意事項、維護保養。適用于內蒙古干旱半干旱地區小麥免耕播種機械作業的技術要求。

  【農機網 政策與標準】2023年8月25日,內蒙古自治區市場監督管理局批準發布DB15/T 3157—2023《小麥免耕播種機作業技術規范》,該地方標準自2023年9月25日起實施。
 
  該標準由內蒙古自治區農牧業機械標準化技術委員會(SAM/TC 06)提出并歸口,由內蒙古自治區農牧業技術推廣中心、呼倫貝爾市農牧技術推廣中心、興安盟農牧技術推廣中心、通遼市農業技術推廣中心、赤峰市農牧技術推廣中心、呼和浩特海關技術中心。
 
  該標準規定了小麥免耕播種機作業的術語和定義、適播條件、播前準備、作業要求、注意事項、維護保養。適用于內蒙古干旱半干旱地區小麥免耕播種機械作業的技術要求。
 
  【播前準備】
 
  地塊——
 
  作業地塊應平坦或為緩坡地,集中連片,適宜機械化作業。
 
  合理規劃播種作業路線,減少邊角地頭空播面積或人工補播面積。
 
  清除或標定影響免耕播種作業的田間雜物、田埂、障礙物等。
 
  作物秸稈、殘茬集堆或覆蓋量影響到作業時,需進行秸稈粉碎、部分離田或表土處理。
 
  機具——
 
  免耕播種機開溝器要求開溝寬度窄、動土量小,且具有破茬切割秸稈和防壅堵功能;鎮壓器選擇單體仿形機構;大型免耕播種機應安裝劃行器或智能導航系統。
 
  按照產品使用說明書,對機具進行作業前檢查、調試,保證各連接部件牢固無松動,傳動件潤滑良好、傳動可靠,防護裝置安全有效。
 
  人員——
 
  作業人員應具有拖拉機駕駛資質,并經過免耕播種機操作專業技能培訓,了解相關技術要求。按產品使用說明書配備輔助作業人員。
 
  作業前應認真閱讀產品使用說明書,按產品使用說明書的規定進行作業、調試和維護操作。
 
  作業人員不應在酒后或身體疲勞狀態下作業。
 
  【作業要求】
 
  應進行試播作業,調試播種機達到預定的播種量、施肥量、播深、行距,并使各行排種、施肥量均勻一致。
 
  按產品使用說明書和地塊情況選擇適宜作業路線及作業速度。
 
  各行程接行準確一致,不重播、不漏行,鄰接行距合格率不小于80%;中途不應無故停止作業,避免出現斷條情況,斷條率不大于2%。
 
  田間掉頭或排除故障時,按產品使用說明書要求進行操作。
 
  播種量和施肥量應根據土壤肥力、小麥品種特性、目標產量,按照當地農藝要求確定。播種深度以2 cm~4 cm較為適宜,沙壤土或墑情不足時加深至4 cm~5 cm。
 
  種肥采用分層側位深施或分層正位深施;側位深施應施在種子的側下方2 cm~5 cm處,肥帶寬度不小于3 c正位深施應施在種子正下方2 cm~5 cm,肥帶寬度略大于種子播幅,肥條均勻連續。晾籽率、播種深度合格率應符合NY/T 1411要求。
 
  【注意事項】
 
  機具起步、接合動力、轉彎、倒車前,應鳴喇叭,觀察附近狀況,提前警示輔助人員和非工作人員撤離到非作業區域。
 
  作業時應隨時觀察機具作業質量,有異?;蚬收蠒r應停機、關閉發動機,檢查并排除故障。播后鎮壓應嚴密緊實,不應出現架空現象。
 
  應在地頭添加種、肥,且數量應保證至少一個往返作業行程,避免作業中途停機。播種機作業時不應在劃行器上站人,不應在機組前后走動。
 
  種子拌藥時,工作人員應戴手套、風鏡和口罩等防護用具,工作完畢,及時清洗。其他安全要求應符合GB 10395.9的規定。
 
  【維護保養】
 
  每班作業后,應將機具上的泥土、雜物清除干凈,并進行日常保養和檢查。
 
  每個作業季節完畢后,機具應按照產品使用說明書的要求進行維護保養。應進行除草、清潔、加注潤滑油(脂),易損件更換、維修等。
 
  維護保養后機具應妥善存放。
 
  注:本文由農機網(www.sunsmell.com.cn)整理發布,資料來源:地方標準信息公共服務平臺。
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